I. PARS PRIMA (Sect. 1-11)
(with violence); emisimus, let [him] go.
The words vel . . . vel (or, if you like)
imply that the same act may be called by either name. ipsum,
of his own accord.
verbis prosecuti may apply as well to kind
words of dismissal as to invective. abiit, simply, is
gone; excessit, has retreated before the
storm; evasit, has escaped by stealth; erupit, has broken forth with violence, -- a
climax of expression, but nearly identical in sense.
moenibus (dative following comparabitur),
against, etc. atque (adding with emphasis), and
so. hunc quidem, him at any rate.
sine controversia, without dispute
versabitur, will be busy.
campo, foro, curia, parietes: observe the
loco motus est, a military expression
(hence the simple ablative, § 258, a, N.²; G. 390, 2, N.²;
H. 414, ii): he lost his vantage-ground.
nullo impediente, i.e. his defenders till
now could screen him by forms of law.
iustum (if retained in the text), regular,
in due form; cf. note on latrocinio,
quod . . . extulit, etc.:
§ 333, b; G. 542; H. 540, iv, N.
cruentum (pred.), reeking with blood.
vivis nobis (abl. absolute), leaving us alive.
civis, acc. plural.
iacet, etc., lies prostrate.
retorquet oculos begins the figure of a
wild beast, which is continued in faucibus. profecto,
quae quidem, which really.
quod . . . proiecerit: see note
on quod extulit, for mood, see § 341, d; G. 541; H. 516, ii.
For the contents of this and the following section cf. Cat.
I, sects. 27, 28, where the supposed complaint against Cicero for not having put Catiline
to death and his reply to it are given at greater length.
qualis omnis, acc. plural.
oportebat: § 311, c; G. 254, R.²;
H. 511, 1, N.³
qui . . . accuset, as to accuse
(§ 320; G. 211, R.5; H. 445, 4.
interfectum esse (§ 288, d; G.
280, R.²): observe the emphatic position.
oportebat: for tense, see note on Cat. I.
huius imperi: partitive gen. res
publica, the public interest.
quam multos, etc.: the passages in
brackets are probably spurious; it will be observed that they merely repeat the preceding
statement in each case.
cum (causal) viderem,
seeing; its object is fore ut . . . possem (§ 288, f;
G. 248; H. 537, 3), which is the apodosis of si multassem. ne
. . . probata: nearly equivalent to cum ne vos quidem . . . probaretis;
implying that if they do not sustain the act, much less will the people at large.
multassem: for future perfect of direct
(§ 337, 3; G. 657, 5; H. 527, i.). fore ut, the
result would be that, etc.
ut . . . possetis, result clause
videretis: § 342; G. 553, 1; H. 529, ii;
if not dependent on possetis it would be videbitis. quem quidem whom, by the way.
intellegatis: § 331, i; G. 553,
2; H. 499, 3.
quod . . . exierit: § 341, d; G.
539; H. 516, ii.
mihi, ethical dat. (§ 236; G. 351; H.
389): as if, "I notice."
aes alienum, etc., ie. petty debts run up
in cook-shops and the like; not like the heavy mortgages spoken of afterwards.
reliquit: notice the emphatic position.
quos viros: for a characterization of
Catiline's partisans, see sects. 18-23.
prae, in comparision
with. Gallicanis, i.e. those permanently stationed
in Cisalpine Gaul. The ager Gallicus below was that strip of sea-coast, north of
Picenum, formerly occupied by the Senones, but as this time reckoned a part of Umbria.
hoc dilectu, refers to a levy recently
raised. Q. Metellus (Celer): see note on Cat. I, sect. 19.
senibus, etc., i.e. those classes who
naturally look forward to a revolution to mend their fortunes.
luxuria = high-livers: abstract
for concrete, as common in Latin and older English; cf. Shakespeare, All's Well,
ii. 1. 91: "Bring in the admiration" (i.e. this wonderful person).
vadimonia deserere, desert their
bondmen, i.e. leave them in the lurch in their creditors' suits.
edictum praetoris, in effect like a sheriff's
writ. Any official order of a magistrate was an edictum.
hos, as opposed to those he did take out.
fulgent purpura, i.e. displaying their
rank as Senators, who alone had the right to wear the broad purple stripe (latus
clavus) on the tunic. The reference therefore is to foppish young nobles. mallem: § 311, b; G. 258, and N.¹;
H. 486, i. eduxisset: § 331, f, R.;
G. 546, R.²; H. 499, 2. si . . . permanent,
a future condition (§ 307, a, N.; G. 228; H. 467, 5).
mementote, i.e. let them remember that
they are objects of suspicion and shall be watched accordingly.
atque hoc, etc., i.e. their effrontery
makes them still more a cause for alarm.
video, i.e. I know
cui sit, etc.: cf. Cat I, sect. 9.
superioris noctis, i.e. three nights ago.
ne, surely: an affirmative
particle sometimes wrongly spelled nae.
ut . . . videretis, clause of result
nisi vero, ironical (as usual),
introducing a reductio ad absurdum. (The si only doubles that in
non . . . iam, no longer.
Aurelia via: see Cat. I., sect. 24.
rem publicam: § 240, d;
G. 343, 1; H. 381. sentinam, refuse (see Cat.
I., sect. 12)
eiecerit: the conclusion is implied in o
fortunatam. exhaustio, drained off
tota Italia: § 258, f, 2; G.
388; H. 425, 2.
subiector, forger; circumscriptor,
perditus, abandoned wretch.
hosce: § 101, footnote; G. 204, i, N.¹;
H. 186, 1.
asciverit: for tense, see
§ 287, c; G. 513; H. 495, vi.
ut . . . possetis: § 317,
c; G. 545, R.³; H. cf. 499, 2, N. diversa
studia. In another passage (Cael. xiii.) Cicero ascribes to Catiline: Cum
tristibus severe, cum remissis iucunde, cum senibus graviter, cum iuventute comiter, cum
facinorosis audaciter, cum libidinosis luxuriose vivere. in
dissimili ratione, in different directions.
ludo, the regular training-school.
gladiatorio: see Cat. I., sect. 29, and note.
levior, etc.: the Roman actors, though
some of them achieved distinction, were generally regarded as a low class of men.
tamen, i.e. though a companion of such
dissolute persons, yet he possessed the qualities of fortitude and endurance so much
admired by the Romans.
exercitatione (abl. of means), trained
by the practice of debaucheries and crimes to endure, etc. frigore
. . . perferendis, abl. with adsuefactus (§ 301, N.;
fortis, a strong and able fellow.
istis (§ 102, c; G. 306, N.;
H. 450, i, N.), those creatures.
cum . . . consumeret (not concessive), while
consuming. subsidia, etc., i.e. means (his
uncommon powers of body and mind) which might have been used, etc.
sui: § 196, c;
G. 309, 2; H. 449, 3.
audaciae, acts of audacity.
obligaverunt, encumbered. res, property. fides,
libido, i.e. luxurious habits and tastes.
quidem (concessive), no doubt.
homines, viris: observe the difference in
mihi: the ethical dat. gives the phrase a
familiar and contemptuous turn which may be reproduced in English by forsooth.
obliti: observe the quantity.
caedem, etc.: notice the strong contrast
between the character of these worn-out debauchees and the sanguinary nature of their
instare, is close at
hand; plane merely emphasizes the idea of the
propagarit: for tense, see § 307, c,
R.; G. 595, N.²; H. 473.
pertimescamus, possit, subjunctive of
unius: Pompey, just returning from his
triumphs in the East.
quacumque ratione, sc. fieri potest.
resecanda erunt, shall need the knife
(lit. must be cut away): the figure is derived from surgery.
si . . . permanent: § 307, a, N.;
G. 228; H. 467, 5.
exspectent: hortative subjunctive in
apodosis (§ 307, d; G. 595; H. 508, 4).
II. PARS SECUNDA (Sect. 12-16)
(after all that has been done).
quod, object of adsequi, if
I could effect it (referring to ipsos, etc.), i.e. their expulsion.
enim, i.e. the idea is absurd, as is
implied in the irony following.
quid, tell me: i.e. "is that
possible" in view of the circumstances, which he proceeds to narrate. hesterno
die qualifies convocavi.
detuli: technical term for laying a matter
before the Senate; cf. referre (ad senatum).
quaesivi, etc.: see Cat.
I., sect. 9.
necne: § 211, d; G. 459; H. 353,
ei, dat. of agent (§ 232, a; G.
354; H. 388, 1).
teneretur, was caught.
pararet, for pluperfect (see note on Cat. I., sect. 2). securis,
fascis: the use of these signified that Catiline intended to assume the authority
and imperium of consul.
signa militaria: i.e. the eagles and unit
award standards. aquilam: see Cat. I., sect. 24, and note.
imperfect (§ 277, c; G. 233; H. 469, 1).
credo, ironical, as very often in this
suo nomine, i.e. not by Catiline's order:
the whole is, of course, ironical, as is already indicated by credo.
Massiliam: Marseilles, an ancient
Greek city of Gaul, always faithful and friendly to Rome. It was a favorite place of
sojourn for Romans who went into voluntary exile.
nunc, even now.
pertimuerit, take alarm.
spe conatuque, referring of course to his
treasonable hopes and designs.
est mihi tanti, it is
worth my while (§ 252, a; G. 380, 1, R.; H. 404).
depellatur: § 314; G. 573, H. 513, i. sane (concessive), if you like.
invidiae, etc.: rather than have his
predictions verified in this way, Cicero prefers the unjust odium of having arbitrarily
driven out Catiline to exile.
aliquando, some day. quod . . . emiserim (§ 341, d; G. 541; H. 516,
ii) . . . eiecerim, let him go . . . drove him out.
si interfectus, etc.: he thus adroitly
excuses himself to those who would have preferred harsher measures. Notice the identity in
sound in pro-fectus, inter-fectus, and observe how the
argument a fortiori is brought out by the exact antithesis.
quamquam (corrective), and
dictitant, notice the frequentative.
nemo, not a man. misericors:
his going to Manlius was his inevitable ruin, and yet, for all their pity, they still
wished him to go.
latrocinantem, in partisan warfare
(see note on Cat., I., sect. 23). vivere:
§ 336, c, N.²; G. 644, R.³, b; cf. H.
535, i, 6.
vivis nobis, i.e. without assassinating
III. PARS TERTIA (Sect. 17-25)
sanare: cf. note
on vivere, above. sibi, for their
own good (for reflexive, see § 196, c, N.; G. 520). placare, gain over.
comparentur, are made up. singulis, to them one by one.
si quam, sc. adferre.
est eorum, consists of
those (predicate gen.).
possessiones, landed property.
dissolvi, sc. a possessionibus:
i.e. although they might pay their debts by the sale of their estates, they cannot make up
their minds to do so.
voluntas et causa, their purposes and
claims (i.e. their position before the world).
tu: the use of the singular, as if he were
addressing one of these men directly, gives point to his reproach of the whole class.
sis: § 268; G. 466; H. 484, v.
tuas, emphatic. tabulas
novas, new accounts, i.e. a general scaling down of debts by legislative
enactment, such as that, B.C. 86, "which reduced every private claim to the fourth
part of its nominal amount, and cancelled three-fourths in favor of the debtors."
auctionariae: a forced sale of their
estates would give them "new accounts" (tabulae) by reducing their
debts; auctionariae [tabulae] would the placards advertising the
sale in question.
quod, object of facere,
relating to the forced sale. neque, and not,
connects facere and certare.
certare cum usuris (§ 248, b; H.
419, 1²), struggle to meet the interest. fructibus,
abl. of means.
uteremur, we should find them.
hos-ce: more emphatic than hos.
vota facturi, likely to offer prayers,
i.e. they will confine themselves to sympathizing with Catiline's revolt; no active
cooperation with him need be feared from them.
premuntur: notice the
emphasis, this class is insolvent; the former class is heavily in debt, but has resources.
quieta re publica: no poor man could hope
to gain political prominence at Rome in ordinary times; these men therefore look to
anarchy to achieve their political ends.
scilicet, in fact.
desperent, have no hope.
me . . . vigilare, etc., indirect
discourse dependent on the idea of saying implied in praecipiendum (§
336, N.²; G. 652, R., 2; H. 523, i, N.).
magnos animos: a great soul, a
man of great soul.
praesentis agrees with deos:
will be at hand, and, etc.
quod si, now if (as often). the quod
is merely adverbial acc. (§ 240, b; G. 610, R.²; H. 378, 2), not
like quod above in sect. 18. iam, at
once. sint . . . adepti, future condition less
vivid. cum summo furore: § 248, N.; G.
399; H. 419, iii, N.¹
non vident, don't they see? (§
210, b; G. 453; H. 351, 3).
adepti sint, for the future perfect
indicative of the direct discourse. fugitivo, i.e. one
of their own slaves; for, when law is overthrown, brute force will control all.
sit necesse: § 307, d; G. 595;
H. 508, 4.
ex eis coloniis: Sulla
rewarded his veterans (120,000 in number) by liberal grants of land, partly in municipia
already existing, partly in new colonies which he founded for them.
universas, as a whole; civium esse, consist of, etc.
ei sunt coloni, these are colonists of
this sort (as opposed to the general character of the colonies, which Cicero does not
wish to impugn).
beati, men of wealth.
Sulla, etc., Sulla will have to be
raised from the dead, for they can have no such hope in Catiline.
agrestis, farmers, not Sulla's
veterum, alluding to the plunder of the
disorderly times following Sulla's victory over the Marian party.
illorum temporum, i.e. the times of
under. vadimoniis, etc., the three steps in
bankrupty, bail, judgment, and sale of property; proscriptio
is strictly the public notice that property is for sale.
infitiatores lentos, dilatory debtors
(lit. deniers, i.e. persons who avoid payment of their debts by every possible
stare, keep their feet.
ita, in such a way. non
modo, etc.: § 149, e; G. 482, 5, R.¹; H. 552, 2.
non revoco: § 276, b;
G. 233; H. 467, 6.
carcer: this is the Tullianum, a
dungeon near the Forum, still existing. It was properly a jail for temporary detention, as
imprisonment was not recognized in Rome as a form of punishment.
numero, in order; genere,
imberbis, a mark of effeminacy; bene barbatos, full-bearded, doubtless a military
affection, as, until lately, the wearing of a moustache (recall the unforgettable style of
handlebar moustaches in the late 1800's --Webmaster).
velis, veils, rather than the
substantial ttoga, which was of unbleached wool. The whole description suggests
foppishness and effeminacy.
saltare et cantare: these
accomplishments were hardly regarded as respectable by the better classes. spargere,
i.e. in food or drink: poisoning has in all ages been carried to a high art in Italy.
scitote: notice the second (future)
imperative (regularly used in this word).
his noctibus: although this was spoken
Nov. 9, yet the Roman year was at this time such in a state of confusion that the true
date was probably some time in December, just when the winter was setting in.
urbes coloniarum, etc.:
the colonies and free communities (municipia) included the walled cities (urbes)
in their territory. These well-manned walls would be more than a match for Catiline's rude
causas, i.e., the cause of
the conspirators and that of the state in their moral aspect (cf. in eius modi,
ex eo ipso, from the very comparison.
bona ratio, good counsel; perdita, desperate.
custodiis vigiliisque: see
Cat. I., sect. 8, and note.
consultum, etc., provident measures
have been taken. coloni municipesque: a colony
differed from a municipium in being founded by Roman (or Latin) citizens, who
retained from the first their citizenship, either in whole or in part. By Cicero's time
there was no longer any real difference between the two classes of towns; but the colonies
always retained a certain precedence in rank.
hac . . . excursione: see Introduction.
gladiatores: see sect. 9.
quamquam (corrective), referring to manum
tamen: pointing the contrast between the
suppression of this body and Catiline's expectations from them.
vocari videtis: the members of the Senate
had their gathering place (senaculum) adjoining the curia, and were
summoned by heralds (praecones) from this into the building. If any were absent,
the heralds were sent to their houses. The curia and senaculum were
visible from the place of assembly in the Forum, and the heralds could no doubt be seen
going their rounds.