Rupilius Rex, of Praeneste (see v. 28), had served under Varus, an
adherent of Pompey, in Africa, and had been proscribed by Augustus.
venenum, gall and venom.
half-breed, son of a Greek father and Roman mother.
a negotiator, or capitalist, doing business at Clazomenae.
See v. 5.
tonsoribus: the physicians' booths and the barbers' shops
were frequented by loungers as well as customers, so that they were
favorite places for gossip. Cf. Ter. Phormio 89, Plaut. Amph.
1013. The disease of sore eyes was very common at Rome, and was one
that had constant treatment. See I.5.30.
connected humorously in the same construction as negotia.
6. durus homo,
a tough customer. odio,
bitterness, hateful conduct. vincere:
implying that Rupilius was not wanting in that respect.
Barros, abusive persons, otherwise unknown, perhaps informers,
and so famous for their abusive language in courts of justice.
equis albis: proverbial;
white horses being supposed to possess superior swiftness,--with
etc.: the main clause is below (pugnat, v. 19)
two, a meaning that this word often has without any distributive
convenit: i.e. they could come to no agreement.
correlative with quo, and used as if the adjectives
are comparative. The parenthesis gives the reason why they couldn't
brave, i.e. good fighters. quibus,
when they fall into, etc., or simply who fall (changing
the construction), etc. adversum
bellum, opposing strife: tautological, but not
out of place, as giving the idea of mutuality.
an illustration of his general statement. inter:
sometimes unnecessarily repeated, as here.
mortal, deadly, i.e. so that they sought each other's life.
only. . .at last; i.e. death at the end of their lives.
etc.: a proof from the opposite, in case of two cowards or a brave
warrior and a coward. vexet:
the condition is a future less vivid one, but is meant to be general.
see Il. VI.119, where, however, Glaucus' cowardice does not
appear. The heroes refuse to fight because of ancient friendship,
but exchange armor, an act which amounted to a gift on Glaucus' part.
Horace may have purposely put this construction on the acts, or it
may have been already done through the belittling spirit of later
to boot: in addition to declining to fight, the coward goes
so far as to give something to buy off his adversary.
he is called praetor because he had held that office the
year before, though his command in Asia was really a consular one.
But the word is also used generically of a governor or judicial magistrate,
and it may be so used here.
19. par pugnat:
Rupilius and Persius are matched as gladiators, or enter
the arena; par (neuter) is the technical word.
melius, a better matched pair.
of sit, having for its predicate par,
to be supplied with compositum.
in ius: the proceedings
before a judge were said to be in iure, within
of course with the figure of a battle or gladiatorial contest.
raises a laugh, by his presentation of the case.
a technical expression for the persons who met at any place in the
provinces, at a term of court, to have justice administered (cf. conventus
agere, used of the governor). cohortem
(amicorum), the suite of young
men who constituted a kind of staff.
the dog-star (cf. 6.126).
i.e. simply as suggesting drought, which is injurious to
their interests. ruebat,
poured forth a torrent.
securis: i.e. in the depth of the woods where
the torrent is fullest.
see note v.1
salso, etc., on
him with his bitter torrent. multo,
with Persio, adjective for adverb.
wrung from, in response to the taunts of the passer-by (see
note on v. 30). re-gerit,
(four syllables), like a, etc.: in many cases the Latin allows
the figure to be identified with the object where we cannot go beyond
a simile. invictus,
not to be outdone. viator,
the passer-by, on the road.
characteristic subjunctive. cuculum:
it appears that the country people of Italy were much given to coarse
language and rude abuse of each other, a tendency that gave rise to
two or three kinds of dramatic composition, and was not without influence
on satire itself. Here the passer-by is supposed to call out to the
belated vine-pruner, "Cuckoo," meaning that the cuckoo had
come. the billingsgate of Rupilius is likened to the rude torrent
poured out by the vine-pruner in reply. As often, Rupilius is not
merely likened to the rustic, but identified with him.
32. at Graecus:
inserted to give the contrast of the Greek's fine wit, to the coarse
vituperation of the Italian (Italo aceto).
alluding to Junius Brutus, the expeller of the Tarquins.
out of the way, like Shakespeare's "taking off."
the pun is of course wholly lost in English, but the word is so familiar
to English ears that the connection is suggestive.
gen., Grammar § 214.c), a fitting task for you:
this rex is a worse nuisance than any you or your
ancestors have removed.