most independent of men, a quality at once fatal to the relation
spoken of, if carried to excess, and fitted to yield the best results
if wisely managed.
matrona, etc.: i.e. the friend will be as far
from the toady as the matron from the harlot.
the difference is indicated in vv. 10-14.
an extension of the construction of words of nearness and likeness.
Cf. differt sermoni, Sat. I.4.48.
vitio: i.e. the fault implied in scurra,
and described in vv. 10-14.
cf. molestus, Sat. I.3.65.
recommends; i.e. tries to make the great man prize him by
a show of excessive simplicity, honesty, and frankness, which becomes
ill-mannered and disagreeable. tonsa
cute, hair cut close to the skin, as opposed
to the prevailing fashion of hair carefully trimmed, but allowed to
grow to some length; see next note. dentibus
atris: such affected neglect of one's personal appearance
was intended to give the impression of an artless, unsophisticated
nature with the old republican simplicity.
i.e. a frank outspokenness which conceals no opinions, and
hence is mistaken for uncompromising virtue.
est, etc.: Horace's decision between the two styles of
intercourse is given in the formula of the Peripatetic philosophy,
and in accordance with his well-known views. Cf. Aristot. Nicomach.
Eth. II.6. It is from this point of view that Horace so often
criticises the Stoics.
i.e. the scurra. Horace proceeds to describe
in detail the two kinds of conduct. obsequium:
cf. Cic. de Am. 24.89 seq. imi:
cf. Sat. II.8.23 and note.
the buffoon, such persons being introduced to make sport
for the company. Cf. the scene at table, in Sat. I.5.51 seq.
cadentia, etc.: as we see them picked up and preserved
by Boswell, in his Life of Johnson.
etc.: cf. the imitations of performers and ringmaster given by the
circus clown. These are no doubt survivals of the action in the mimes.
For the relation of the second actor to the first, cf. Sat.
I.9.46 and note.
the affectedly independent friend. rixatur:
i.e. in order to show that he is no scurra, he contests
every point, no matter how unimportant. This class is still found,
at any rate across the Atlantic. lana
caprina: proverbial for a mere nothing.
indicating the man's vehement obstinacy. scilicet,
etc.: Why! the idea that, etc.; a remark of the ill-mannered
fellow in his defence, showing his misapprehension of the real case;
he mistakes impertinence for honesty. For scilicet,
cf. Sat. II.1.70; Ep. I.9.3, I.10.2.
the word is purposely chosen to hint at the brusqueness of his conduct.
to buy me. aetas
altera: another life, i.e. if it could
be given as a bribe. sordet,
is too poor a gift.
well! or why! The connection really is, this vehemence
is of course justifiable, for the question is, etc.
plus: has more skill.
damnosa, etc.: instructions as to certain special relations,
beginning with the advice not to imitate the patron in vices, particularly
in expensive ones; for though he have a dozen more vices, he likes
to have a friend more virtuous than himself.
his means. vestit
et unguit: of the care of his person.
i.e. money. importuna,
this word seems to hint at the real reason of the dislike; the vices
a humorous application of the word.
wishes to direct. pia,
devoted, the word being used both of filial and paternal
vera, not so far from the truth, but cf. Sat.
the full and flowing toga, though beginning now to be common, was
still considered luxurious, and belonged only to high life.
etc.: an anecdote to show the folly of vying with the rich patron.
The person mentioned was P. Volumnius, who received this nickname
on account of his wit (eutrapelía, cf. Cic. ad
and 33). It will
be noticed that the action here is a practical joke, like that of
iam, now become a rich man, i.e. in
his tastes and feelings.
the thought of Eutrapelus, he will, said he, etc.
plan of life.
cf. Sat. II.6.44. holitoris,
a huckster, who carried about vegetables on a horse or
donkey through the streets for sale. This custom is still common
in Italy, while the corresonding business is done with us in a wagon.
[A reminder that this book was written
in 1888. --Webmaster] Of course the employment of a
driver of such an animal would be of the lowest kind. We should
say, dig ditches, or carry mortar.
etc.: i.e. be not too inquisitive as to his secrets, nor
garrulous as to his confidences.
cf. II.3.435, a common idea with the ancients, derived from evidence
under torture. ira,
i.e. from some offence taken at the patron.
tua laudabis, etc.: i.e. do not exalt your tastes
above his, but gracefully conform to his favorite pursuits.
such as the patron's.
etc.: this advice, accompanied by the details which follow, seems
not to be merely general, but to have reference to the pursuits of
the unknown patron, and the literary leanings of Lollius.
etc.: an anecdote showing the separating force of uncongenial tastes.
cf. Od. III.11.2.
the ancients, with all their devotion to the Muses, were inclined
to look upon literature and music as more and less effeminate and
the character of Zethus is represented as somewhat savage, or at least
serious and warlike.
i.e. only expressed in gentle invitation.
probably in allusion to the chase of the Calydonian boar.
unsocial, as exacting, and intolerant of distractions.
i.e. at being interrupted, which is characteristic of literary
habitual, and so all the more appropriate for a Roman.
opus: in apposition
with the whole previous exhortation. Such words expressing the result
of the action of the verb are regularly in the accusative; cf. the
cognate accusative. Cf. Tac. Ann. I.74.
etc.: a further reason for engaging in hunting, drawn from Lollius'
etc.: i.e. furthermore it is an exercise in which Lollius
appears to advantage.
the crowd, of spectators witnessing the exercises on the
Campus Martius. Cf. campo, I.7.59.
i.e. javelin throwing, and perhaps foil practice; possibly
mimic cavalry battles; cf. the Game of Troy, Virg. Aen. V.545
bella: in B.C. 25 Augustus undertook an expedition into
Spain to subdue the Cantabri and Astures (cf. Od. III.14
and IV.14.41). Lollius must have served in this expedition.
etc.: alluding to the army sent by Augustus against the Parthians
so often referred to. Cf. Od. IV.15.6 and III.5.4; Ep.
refigit: as the standards captured from Crassus and Antonius
had been presumably dedicated in Roman fashion on the columns of the
Parthian temples, so they are now being unhung to be restored to the
Romans. The epistle must therefore have been written in B.C. 20.
quid abest, etc.: i.e. he is completing the
conquest of the world. This action is spoken of as a decision of a
judge who maintains the right of the Romans to universal empire and
gives them possession of their domain.
te retrahas, etc.: not the purpose of what is said, but
the purpose of saying it (cf. I.1.13), as of "I may say,"
or the like.
extra numerum, etc.: i.e. you would do nothing
frivolous or trifling; you are not above representing a mimic battle,
a fact which shows that you have no excuse for absenting yourself
from active sports. extra numerum modumque: i.e.
unbecoming, out of character, or contrary to propriety; a regular
expression drawn from the art of music; lit. out of time and tune.
paterno: i.e. in the retirement of the country,
so often referred to; cf. Sat. II.1.73.
either slaves or boys, either of which classes might engage in the
etc.: a return to the main idea after the long parenthesis.
as we might say, vote with both hands. pollice:
the allusion must be to the amphitheatre, at which perhaps gentlemanly
appluase was given by the thumb turned down (pressus)
and striking the railing or some other object. The opposite to this
is pollicem vertere, holding up the thumb. The origin
of the custom is uncertain; perhaps it was like "pointing the
finger of scorn," and from that the opposite came to signify
the regular word for gladiatorial exercise; here figuratively of the
action of the client, who is approved for joining in his patron's
ut moneam, etc.: a warning against indiscreet comment
on others' characters, and too much indulgence shown to the inquisitive
"interviewer." Cf. Sat. II.5.51, although there
the subject is a different one.
with a double reference. The ears are wide open to catch, but they
for the same reason readily let go what they have heard.
cf. Sat. II.5.91. ancilla,
etc.: cf. Od. II.4; Virg. Ecl. II.
iecur: the seat
of the passions, according to the ancients; cf. Od. IV.1.12.
i.e. for fear his generosity may be cooled from jealousy,
even if actual emnity does not ensue (incommodus,
enrich (cf. beatus), purposely used with
parvo (too small) for the contrast.
commendes, etc.: i.e. be careful for whom you
make yourself responsible by introduction. commendes:
an almost technical word used as well as tradere
in this sense.
i.e. of the friend introduced.
i.e. if such a thing does happen, as it sometimes will, recognize
your error and abandon the unworthy person, so that your defence may
have weight in the case of one unjustly accused.
etc.: i.e. if another is slandered, you may be sure your
turn will come by and by.
from Theon, an unknown calumniator, whose name passed into a proverb.
etc: a general warning of the dangers of the career to the inexperienced,
and a recommendation not to be thrown off one's guard by success.
hilarem, etc.: a recommendation to a certain conformity
(obsequium) of one's tastes and moods to those of
one's friend, and an exhortation to a genial and cheerful demeanor.
disingenuous, concealing his real feelings, and wanting in
a harsh critic, in that silence seems to cover disapproval.
cuncta, etc.: a general direction as to self-culture
aside from all relations with others: amid all your endeavors to please,
do not forget to acquire a well-ordered soul by the study of philosophy,
--a suggestion which might well perhaps have taken precedence of all
the other precepts. The questions mentioned are the commonplaces of
quotiens, etc: the poet closes with a picture of his
own contented life upon his little estate, perhaps as an example of
the proper aim in such a career and the proper way of attaining it.
He himself, by his friendship with Maecenas, had acquired the estate,
no doubt having followed his own precepts, and by the study of philosophy,
recommended in vv. 96-103, had preserved his independence of worldly
advancement, and the aequus animus which is the chief end
of philosophy and of life. He is thus a pattern for his young friend
satis est, etc.: a correction of nec fluitem,
etc., inasmuch as that condition is the result of an aequus animus
which is of course in the philosopher's own power.