sit, etc.: the main clause is postponed by two parentheses
to v. 25. Veliae:
a coast town of Lucania, about twenty-five miles southeast of Paestum.
It was famous as the seat of the Eleatic school of philosophy.
the weather. Salerni:
Salerno, still a considerable town on the bay of Salerno,
just south of the promontory of Sorrento.
etc.: i.e. what sort of people are there in the region? still
an important question for travellers in that country.
the means of getting there, as the places were off the main lines
of travel. nam
mihi, etc.: the poet's reason for inquiring, extending
through v. 13. Baias:
the favorite watering-place in the Bay of Naples, famous for its warm
and mineral baths, here opposed to the cold bathing prescribed by
Antonius Musa, on account of a cure of Augustus, B.C. 23, by a cold-water
treatment, became the fashionable physician of the times in much the
same manner in which such reputations are made nowadays.
useless, i.e. in the advice which he gives.
though the people of Baiae have no reason to find fault, inasmuch
as I follow a prescription in avoiding their baths.
i.e. because Horace neglects their baths, as explained in
cum perluor, etc.
medium frigus,: cf. hiems, v. 1.
any rate; i.e. the following is true, whether the inference (me
facit invisum) is true or not. murteta:
in a myrtle grove near Baiae were Russian (or Turkish?) baths. Cf.
maximeque utiles naturales et siccae sudationes sunt, quales super
Baias habemus in murtetis, Celsus III.21.
said to, i.e. so reputed until the new cure was
invented. Compare modern vagaries in medicine.
dative with elidere.
i.e. in the sulphur baths. vicus,
the town, of Baiae. invidus:
i.e. on account of their abandoning the old remedies and
seeking new ones which Baiae does not furnish.
et stomachum, etc.: probably to be taken literally of
a douche. audent,
have the presumption, i.e. to venture on a new cure.
i.e. cold baths such as were at Clusium and Gabii, as opposed
to the hot ones of Baiae.
etc.: continuing the idea of v. 2 (nam mihi, etc.).
i.e. at Baiae, or Cumae.
because the road to Salernum, etc., leads further on down the coast.
addressed to the horse, which, as we all know by experience, turns
in habitual directions; here towards Cumae and Baiae.
because the road to Cumae turns to the right. habena:
the means by which the rider speaks to the horse; cf. in ore,
v. 13. He speaks with the bit and is heard by the mouth.
etc.: continuing the question in vv. 1 and 2. Inquiries as to the
bread and water of the region.
i.e. in cisterns, rain water being less agreeable than that
vina, etc.: i.e. I ask about the water, for
I don't care for the wine there.
meo, etc.: the poet explains his fastidiousness in regard
to the wine; i.e. at home in retirement he doesn't mind what
he has. perferre,
get along with; cf. I.16.74.
mare, etc.: i.e. in the social life of a watering-place
to which he goes for relaxation. generosum
et lene, fine and mellow, as more stimulating.
spe: cf. I.5.17 and Od. I.18.4, a very common
idea with the poet.
i.e. at Velia.
etc.: continuing the questions in reference to the food.
cf. I.2.28 and I.4.15.
est: cf. the common aequum est, as in
etc.: the poet, in order to explain the Epicurean tone of his questions,
goes on to illustrate his double character by the story of a ruined
bon vivant, who retained his appetite, but could adjust himself
to circumstances. This account, though humorously exaggerated, is
in perfect accord with Horace's statement of his lapses into Aristippean
philosophy. Cf. I.1.18, 19.
a humorous misapplication of a noble quality to an unworthy action.
The fearlessness would consist in his disregard of consequences.
hanger on, who lives by his wits. haberi,
to act as, lit. to be considered such by the patrons who
i.e. not dining at his own house, but wherever he could get
an invitation, as explained in the following.
dinosceret hoste: apparently proverbial, ready to accept
an invitation from either.
etc.: i.e. in his quality as scurra, abusing
anybody to make himself agreeable. Cf. Sat. I.4.86-90, and
Ep. I.18.11, as well as the English word scurrilous
with its developed meaning.
fautoribus: such as Hermogenes Tigellius, Sat.
i.e. those who were afraid of his abuse.
i.e. had failed to secure any gifts sufficient to enable
him to indulge his appetite for dainties. patinas,
whole platters, indicating his greediness even when he had
less inviting food than the luxuries to which he was ordinarily invited.
He did not disdain this humble food, but enjoyed what he had to repletion.
ut, etc.: in this lies the kernel of the whole anecdote.
In time of scarcity he consoled himself by becoming a reformer, and
venting his abuse upon spendthrifts who, it must be remembered, were
the very nequitiae fautores who fed him. It is this
tone of abuse that Horace represents as corresponding to his own preaching
against the vices of mankind. ventres:
in allusion to the punishment of slaves, which was made to fit the
crime by branding the offending member. lamna:
cf. ignes candentesque laminae ceterique cruciatus, Cic.
better than the Ms. correctus as making a more exact
parallel with Horace. Bestius
(in apposition with subject of diceret): a contemporary
or earlier inveigher against luxury; cf. temperance reformers in modern
Horace treats the parasite's drafts on his patrons as plunder.
paullum, v. 34. His plunder in this case was sufficient
to gratify his old tastes, and accordingly he lives in luxury while
Hercule miror, etc.: this remark emphasizes the fact
that his preaching against extravagance is only a temporary phase,
lasting only so long as he had nothing.
considered a great delicacy by the Romans.
you see, humorously putting a construction upon his behavior
which it might apparently bear, but which is not the true one.
hic: cf. I.6.40.
parvula, humble circumstances and careless
ease, as opposed to the dangers attending dignity and riches.
unmoved, strong to resist the temptations of appetite.
more toothsome and rich, as opposed to dry and humble diet.
none the less; lit. the same man who was so content with
this would imply that Numonius had a villa in the neighborhood of
implying that they were well stocked. fundata,